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  Geography
  People
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In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.


This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


Map of Peru

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Peru
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term in the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress in November of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government.
   Geography    Peru
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,536 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.89%
permanent crops: 0.4%
other: 96.71% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
   People    Peru
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27,544,305 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 32.1% (male 4,496,146; female 4,340,580)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 8,709,098; female 8,594,351)
65 years and over: 5.1% (male 660,734; female 743,396) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24.6 years
male: 24.4 years
female: 24.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.39% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.27 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.29 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 32.95 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 35.57 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 30.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.22 years
male: 67.48 years
female: 71.03 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.61 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
82,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 90%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.9%
male: 95.2%
female: 86.8% (2003 est.)
   Government    Peru
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Lima
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: some reports indicate that the 24 departments and 1 constitutional province are now being referred to as regions; Peru is implementing a decentralization program whereby these 25 administrative divisions will begin to exercise greater governmental authority over their territories; in November 2002, voters chose their new regional presidents and other regional leaders; the authority that the regional government will exercise has not yet been clearly defined, but it will be devolved to the regions over the course of several years
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
31 December 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military may not vote
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001); note - Raul DIEZ Canseco resigned as First Vice President on 30 January 2004
head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001); note - Raul DIEZ Canseco resigned as First Vice President on 30 January 2004
note: Prime Minister Carlos FERRERO Costa (since 15 December 2003) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president; note - Beatriz MERINO was asked to resign on 12 December 2003 and was replaced by Carlos FERRERO Costa three days later
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 April 2001, with runoff election held 3 June 2001; next to be held 9 April 2006
election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 8 April 2001 (next to be held 9 April 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Peruvian Aprista Party or PAP (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA) [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, CAN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo FERRERO Costa
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
   Economy    Peru
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy was one of the fastest growing in Latin America in 2002 and 2003, growing by 5% and 4%, respectively, with the exchange rate stable and an annual inflation lower than 2%. Foreign direct investment also was strong, thanks to the ongoing Camisea natural gas pipeline project (scheduled to begin operations in 2004) and investments in gold mining. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2003, reflecting investor optimism and the government's fiscal restraint. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, political intrigue and allegations of corruption continued to swirl in 2003, with the TOLEDO administration growing increasingly unpopular, and local and foreign concern rising that the political turmoil could place the country's hard-won fiscal and financial stability at risk. Moreover, as of late 2003, unemployment had yet to respond to the strong growth in economic activity, owing in part to rigid labor market regulations that act as an impediment to hiring.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $146 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $5,100 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8%
industry: 27%
services: 65% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.7% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
54% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 35.4% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
46.2 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.63 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 5.9%, mining and quarrying 0.4%, manufacturing 12.6%, construction 5.3%, commerce 26.3%, household work 4.9%, other services 44.6% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.7%; widespread underemployment (2004 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $15.86 billion
expenditures: $17.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
49.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.59 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.15 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
95,100 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
161,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
614.7 million bbl (2004)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
370 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
370 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
245.1 billion cu m (2004)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-1.116 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.954 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 27.1%, UK 12.4%, China 7.7%, Switzerland 7.6%, Chile 4.7%, Japan 4.4% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.244 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 28.6%, Spain 10%, Chile 7.5%, Brazil 5.1%, Colombia 4.5% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.24 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.95 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$895.1 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
nuevo sol (PEN)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
PEN
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002), 3.5068 (2001), 3.49 (2000), 3.3833 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Peru
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,839,200 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,908,800 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.pe
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
65,868 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.85 million (2003)
   Transportation    Peru
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,462 km
standard gauge: 2,962 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 500 km 0.914-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 72,900 km
paved: 9,331 km
unpaved: 63,569 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
8,808 km
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 388 km; oil 1,557 km; refined products 13 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 13,666 GRT/17,611 DWT
by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: United States 1
registered in other countries: 19 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
233 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 52
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 2 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 62
under 914 m: 98 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)
   Military    Peru
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Naval Infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 7,374,187 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 4,938,512 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 277,931 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$829.4 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Peru
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Bolivia has reanimated its claim to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile and adjoining Peru in 1884 to secure sovereign maritime assess for Bolivian natural gas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; cultivation of coca in Peru fell 15 percent to 31,150 hectares between 2002 and the end of 2003; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


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