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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.


This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


Map of New Zealand

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    New Zealand
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
   Geography    New Zealand
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 00 S, 174 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 268,680 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about the size of Colorado
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
15,134 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.6%
permanent crops: 6.99%
other: 87.41% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
   People    New Zealand
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,993,817 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 21.7% (male 443,211; female 422,507)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,337,383; female 1,325,683)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 203,084; female 261,949) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 33.4 years
male: 32.6 years
female: 34.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.05% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.04 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.54 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5.96 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 78.49 years
male: 75.5 years
female: 81.61 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.79 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,400 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European 4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% (1986)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Maori (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA
female: NA
   Government    New Zealand
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand
abbreviation: NZ
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Wellington
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
13 regions; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne-Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Nelson-Marlborough, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing
Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
26 September 1907 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments and The Constitution Act 1986 which is the principal formal charter
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since NA July 2002)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; 69 members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies, and 51 proportional seats chosen from party lists, all to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 27 July 2002 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NZLP 52, NP 27, NZFP 13, ACT New Zealand 9, Green Party 9, UF 8, other 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court; Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
ACT New Zealand [Richard PREBBLE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; National Party or NP [Don BRASH]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Coalition [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISET, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador L. John WOOD
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles J. SWINDELLS
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034
telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000
FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490
consulate(s) general: Auckland
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
   Economy    New Zealand
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder), broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Per capita income has been rising and is now 80% of the level of the four largest EU economies. New Zealand is heavily dependent on trade - particularly in agricultural products - to drive growth, and it has been affected by the global economic slowdown and the slump in commodity prices. Thus far the economy has been resilient, and growth should continue at the same level in 2004. Expenditures on health, education, and pensions will increase proportionately.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $85.34 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $21,600 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4.8%
industry: 27.4%
services: 67.8% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.9% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.3%
highest 10%: 29.8% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.8% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.008 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 10%, industry 25%, services 65% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2004 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $32.14 billion
expenditures: $30.13 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, dairy products; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.51 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.88 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
42,160 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
132,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30,220 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
119,700 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
89.62 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.504 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.504 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
58.94 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-3.446 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$15.86 billion (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 21.8%, US 14.6%, Japan 11%, China 4.9%, UK 4.8% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16.06 billion (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 22.2%, US 11.8%, Japan 11.8%, China 9%, Germany 5.3% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.083 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$37.46 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $99.7 million
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
NZD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.7229 (2003), 2.1622 (2002), 2.3788 (2001), 2.2012 (2000), 1.8896 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    New Zealand
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.765 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.599 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems
domestic: NA
international: country code - 64; submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.nz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
474,395 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.11 million (2003)
   Transportation    New Zealand
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,898 km
narrow gauge: 3,898 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 92,053 km
paved: 57,809 km (including at least 190 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,244 km (2000)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 2,213 km; liquid petroleum gas 79 km; oil 160 km; refined products 304 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 77,523 GRT/108,352 DWT
by type: bulk 3, cargo 2, container 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: Australia 1, Isle of Man 1
registered in other countries: 8 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
113 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 46
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 5 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 67
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 37 (2003 est.)
   Military    New Zealand
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,033,464 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 868,984 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 27,157 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.147 billion (FY03/04)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (FY02)
   Transnational Issues    New Zealand
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


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