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  Madagascar  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
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In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.


This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


Map of Madagascar

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Madagascar
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner.
   Geography    Madagascar
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 587,040 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
4,828 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.07%
permanent crops: 1.03%
other: 93.91% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10,900 sq km (2000 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
   People    Madagascar
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17,501,871 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 44.9% (male 3,935,523; female 3,922,077)
15-64 years: 52% (male 4,509,877; female 4,596,662)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 245,168; female 292,564) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17.4 years
male: 17.2 years
female: 17.7 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.03% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
41.91 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.62 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 78.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 86.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 69.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 56.54 years
male: 54.19 years
female: 58.96 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.7 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,500 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68.9%
male: 75.5%
female: 62.5% (2003 est.)
   Government    Madagascar
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
local short form: Madagascar
former: Malagasy Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Antananarivo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Jacques SYLLA (27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA November 2006); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 37.7%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 50.5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (160 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); Senate (100 seats; two-thirds of the seats filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats appointed by the president; all members will serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 15 December 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 103, FP 22, AREMA 3, LEADER/Fanilo 2, RPSD 5, others 3, independents 22
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagascar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Rajaonarivony NARISOA
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
FAX: [1] (202) 483-7603
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda L. NESBITT
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 101
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57, 22-212-73, 22-209-56
FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
   Economy    Madagascar
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank and IMF led policy of privatization and liberalization. This strategy has placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing four-fifths of the population. Exports of apparel have boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the United States. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel are serious concerns. President RAVALOMANANA has worked aggressively to revive the economy following the 2002 political crisis, which triggered a 12% drop in GDP that year. Poverty reduction and combating corruption will be the centerpieces of economic policy for the next few years.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $13.02 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 34.5%
industry: 7.8%
services: 57.7% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.8% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
71% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 29% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
38.1 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.3 million (2000)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9% (1998)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $739.6 million
expenditures: $1.071 billion, including capital expenditures of $331 million (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
830.2 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
772.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-398 million (2004 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$700 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 37.4%, US 29.2%, Germany 5.5%, Mauritius 5.2% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$920 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 14.2%, France 13.2%, South Africa 6.4%, Iran 6.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$423 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.6 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$354 million (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Malagasy franc (MGF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MGF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,210 (2003), 6,831.96 (2002), 6,588.49 (2001), 6,767.48 (2000), 6,283.77 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Madagascar
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
59,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
279,500 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: system is above average for the region
domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions
international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
773 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
70,500 (2003)
   Transportation    Madagascar
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 732 km
narrow gauge: 732 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 49,827 km
paved: 5,780 km
unpaved: 44,047 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
600 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 14,865 GRT/17,936 DWT
by type: cargo 8, chemical tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
registered in other countries: 2 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
116 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 2 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 87
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 42
under 914 m: 43 (2003 est.)
   Military    Madagascar
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
People's Armed Forces: comprising Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval - Navy and Air - Force; National Gendarmerie
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 4,004,242 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,373,342 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 169,186 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$69.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.2% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Madagascar
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


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