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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
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  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.


This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


Map of Slovakia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Slovakia
Background:
Definition Field Listing
In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
   Geography    Slovakia
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
48 40 N, 19 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,524 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 30.16%
permanent crops: 2.62%
other: 67.22% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,740 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
   People    Slovakia
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,423,567 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.5% (male 485,523; female 463,173)
15-64 years: 70.8% (male 1,908,425; female 1,929,861)
65 years and over: 11.7% (male 239,081; female 397,504) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 35.1 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 36.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.14% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.57 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.48 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.88 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.19 years
male: 70.21 years
female: 78.37 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000), Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Slovak (official), Hungarian
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
   Government    Slovakia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bratislava
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998); Deputy Prime Minister Ivan MIKLOS (since 30 October 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3 April and 17 April 2004 (next to be held April 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%; Mikulas DZURINDA reelected prime minister October 2002
note: government coalition - SDKU, SMK, KDH, ANO
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20-21 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS-LS 19.5%, SDKU 15.1%, SMER 13.5%, SMK 11.2%, KDH 8.3%, ANO 8%, KSS 6.3%; seats by party - governing coalition 67 (SDKU 21, SMK 20, KDH 15, ANO 11), opposition 83 (HZDS 26, Smer 25, KSS 10, People's Union 8, Free Forum 7, and independents 7)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction (Smer) [Robert FICO]; Free Forum [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia-People's Party or HZDS-LS [Vladimir MECIAR]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; People's Union or LU [Vojtech TKAC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef SEVC]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Peter SULOVSKY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMISET, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Rastislav KACER
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald WEISER
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5443-0096
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue
   Economy    Slovakia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government made excellent progress during 2001-03 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and foreign investment has picked up. Slovakia's economy exceeded expectations in 2001-03, despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 15% in 2003, remains the economy's Achilles heel. The government faces other strong challenges in 2004, especially cutting the budget deficit, containing inflation, and strengthening the health care system.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $72.29 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $13,300 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 5.9%
industry: 47.9%
services: 46.2% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.8% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 5.1%
highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
26.3 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.6% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.58 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 8.9%, industry 29.3%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.2% (2004 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $12.03 billion
expenditures: $13.69 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.2% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.29 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.41 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
5.141 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.381 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
82,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
292 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.932 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.205 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.504 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-277.4 million (2004 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$21.25 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 39.4%, intermediate manufactured goods 27.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 13%, chemicals 8% (1999)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 37.2%, Czech Republic 12%, Austria 9.8%, Italy 5.4%, Poland 4.7%, US 4.7%, Hungary 4.2% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$21.9 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 37.7%, intermediate manufactured goods 18%, fuels 13%, chemicals 11%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 27.5%, Czech Republic 18.3%, Russia 10.8%, Austria 6.4%, Italy 5.6%, Poland 4.1%, Hungary 4% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.74 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18.31 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $113 million (2000),; $92 million EU structural adjustment funds (2000 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Slovak koruna (SKK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
SKK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
koruny per US dollar - 36.7729 (2003), 45.3267 (2002), 48.3548 (2001), 46.0352 (2000), 41.3628 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Slovakia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,294,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,678,800 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality
domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added
international: country code - 421; three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sk
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
89,592 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,375,800 (2003)
   Transportation    Slovakia
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,661 km
broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,512 km 1.435-m gauge (1,588 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 49 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 42,717 km
paved: 37,036 km (including 296 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,681 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
172 km (on Danube River) (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 6,769 km; oil 449 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bratislava, Komarno
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 41,891 GRT/63,185 DWT
by type: bulk 4, cargo 4
foreign-owned: Bulgaria 3, Estonia 1, Greece 1, India 1, Liberia 1, Panama 1 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
34 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 7 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)
   Military    Slovakia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (Ground Forces), Air and Air Defense Forces, Home Guard (Territorial Defense Forces)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (conscripts serve nine months of basic military service; term of service will be reduced to six months effective 2004) (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,477,017 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,129,935 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 43,029 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$406 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.89% (2002)
   Transnational Issues    Slovakia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary amended its status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia, many of whom had protested the law; Slovakia and Hungary have renewed discussions on ways to resolve differences over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam on the Danube, with possible resort again to the ICJ for final resolution
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


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