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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.


This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


Map of Georgia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Georgia
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The region of present-day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries AD and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th to the 13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Despite myriad problems, some progress on market reforms and democratization has been made since then. An attempt by the government to manipulate legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. New elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his National Movement Party.
   Geography    Georgia
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
42 00 N, 43 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,461 km
border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
310 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
No data available
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,201 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 11.44%
permanent crops: 3.86%
other: 84.7% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
4,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
   People    Georgia
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,693,892 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.7% (male 461,967; female 416,898)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 1,480,217; female 1,607,509)
65 years and over: 15.5% (male 290,534; female 436,767) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 37 years
male: 34.5 years
female: 39.2 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.36% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.1 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.98 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.16 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 19.34 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 75.62 years
male: 72.35 years
female: 79.44 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 900 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 100%
female: 98% (1999 est.)
   Government    Georgia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
T'bilisi
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 9 cities (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)
: regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli
: cities: Chiat'ura, Gori, K'ut'aisi, P'ot'i, Rust'avi, T'bilisi, Tqibuli, Tsqaltubo, Zugdidi
: autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)
note: the administrative centers of the 2 autonomous republics are shown in parentheses
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 is the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 17 October 1995
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 January 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government for the power ministries: state security, interior, and defense
head of government: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 January 2004); Prime Minister Zurab ZHVANIA (since 9 February 2004); note - the president is the chief of state and head of government for the power ministries: state security, interior, and defense; the prime minister is head of the remaining ministries of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 4 January 2004 (next to be held NA 2009)
election results: Mikheil SAAKASHVILI elected president; percent of vote - Mikheil SAAKASHVILI 96.3%, Temur SHASHIASHVILI 1.9%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats - 150 elected by party lists); members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 28 March 2004 (next to be held spring 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - National Movement-Democrats 67.6%, Rightist Opposition 7.6%, all other parties received less than 7% each; seats by party - National Movement-Democrats 135, Rightist Opposition 15
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's recommendation); Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG [Avtandil JORBENADZE]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Right [Levaii GACHECHILADZE]; Republican Party [David BERDZENISHVILI]; "Revival" Union Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government in exile; separatists in the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; supporters of the late ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Levan MIKELADZE
chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard M. MILES
embassy: #25 Atoneli Street, T'bilisi 0105
mailing address: 7060 Tbilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
telephone: [995] (32) 989-967/68
FAX: [995] (32) 933-759
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
white rectangle, in its central portion a red cross connecting all four sides of the flag; in each of the four corners is a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; the five-cross flag appears to date back to the 14th century
   Economy    Georgia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as citrus fruits, tea, hazelnuts, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 1995, achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation. However, the Georgian Government suffers from limited resources due to a chronic failure to collect tax revenues. Georgia also suffers from energy shortages; it privatized the T'bilisi distribution network in 1998, but collection rates are low, making the venture unprofitable. The country is pinning its hopes for long-term growth on its role as a transit state for pipelines and trade. The start of construction on the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and the Baku-T'bilisi-Erzerum gas pipeline will bring much-needed investment and job opportunities.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $12.18 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20.5%
industry: 22.6%
services: 56.9% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 27.9% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37.1 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.8% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 40%, industry 20%, services 40% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $603.5 million
expenditures: $700.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2000)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.27 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.611 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
850 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.16 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-365 million (2004 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$615 million (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
scrap metal, machinery, chemicals; fuel reexports; citrus fruits, tea, wine
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 17.7%, Turkey 17.3%, Turkmenistan 12.2%, Armenia 8.6%, Switzerland 6.9%, Ukraine 6.3%, UK 5.9% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.25 billion (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fuels, machinery and parts, transport equipment, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 14%, UK 12.9%, Turkey 9.9%, Azerbaijan 8.3%, US 8%, Germany 7.3%, Ukraine 7%, France 4.9% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$190.7 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.8 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $150 million (2000 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
lari (GEL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
GEL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
lari per US dollar - 2.1457 (2003), 2.1957 (2002), 2.073 (2001), 1.9762 (2000), 2.0245 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Georgia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
650,500 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
522,300 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available
international: country code - 995; Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
12 (plus repeaters) (1998)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ge
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,160 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
150,500 (2003)
   Transportation    Georgia
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,612 km (1,612 km electrified)
broad gauge: 1,575 km 1.520-m gauge (1,575 electrified)
narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 electrified) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 20,363 km
paved: 19,038 km
unpaved: 1,325 km (2000)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 1,495 km; oil 1,029 km; refined products 232 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 144 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 855,908 GRT/1,288,812 DWT
by type: bulk 20, cargo 95, chemical tanker 1, container 11, liquefied gas 1, multi-functional large load carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea/passenger 1, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: Albania 2, Belize 2, British Virgin Islands 2, Bulgaria 1, Cyprus 5, Ecuador 1, Egypt 3, Estonia 1, Germany 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 13, Israel 1, Italy 1, Latvia 4, Lebanon 3, Liberia 2, Madagascar 1, Malta 1, Netherlands 2, Norway 1, Panama 8, Romania 6, Russia 10, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Saudi Arabia 1, Syria 31, Turkey 10, Ukraine 16,
registered in other countries: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
31 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)
Transportation - note:
Definition Field Listing
transportation network is in poor condition resulting from ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair
   Military    Georgia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces (including National Guard), Air and Air Defense Forces, Maritime Defense Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,156,302 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 906,400 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 39,570 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$23 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.59% (FY00)
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
a CIS peacekeeping force of Russian troops is deployed in the Abkhazia region of Georgia together with a UN military observer group; a Russian peacekeeping battalion is deployed in South Ossetia
   Transnational Issues    Georgia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
about a third of the boundary with Russia remains undelimited, and none of it demarcated, with several small, strategic segments remaining in dispute; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge in Abkhazia; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary with Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbaijan protests Georgian construction at the Red Bridge crossing and several other small segments of boundary, which remain unresolved until delimitation
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 260,000 (displaced from Abkhazia and South Ossetia) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


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