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In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.


This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


Map of China

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    China
Background:
Definition Field Listing
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the 19th and early 20th centuries, China was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making. Output quadrupled by 2000. Political controls remain tight while economic controls continue to be relaxed.
   Geography    China
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
35 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22,117 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
14,500 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 15.4%
permanent crops: 1.25%
other: 83.36% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak;
   People    China
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,298,847,624 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 22.3% (male 153,401,051; female 135,812,993)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 469,328,664; female 443,248,860)
65 years and over: 7.5% (male 46,308,923; female 50,747,133) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 31.8 years
male: 31.5 years
female: 32.2 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.57% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.98 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.92 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 25.28 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 29.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 71.96 years
male: 70.4 years
female: 73.72 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.69 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
840,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
44,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.9%
male: 95.1%
female: 86.5% (2002)
   Government    China
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo
abbreviation: PRC
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Communist state
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Beijing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
: provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
: autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Xizang (Tibet)
: municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
most recent promulgation 4 December 1982
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 March 2003)
head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Vice Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 March 2003), WU Yi (17 March 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 March 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)
elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 15-17 March 2003 (next to be held mid-March 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress with a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress with a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held December 2002-February 2003 (next to be held late 2007-February 2008)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the China Democracy Party as subversive groups
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi
chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.
embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831
FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenyang
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner
   Economy    China
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, inefficient, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of household and village responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2003 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the country is still poor. Agriculture and industry have posted major gains especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong, opposite Taiwan, and in Shanghai, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (growing income disparities and rising unemployment). China thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) sustain adequate jobs growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Beijing says it will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure - such as water supply and power grids - and poverty relief and through rural tax reform. Accession to the World Trade Organization helps strengthen its ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. China has benefited from a huge expansion in computer internet use. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's remarkable economic growth. Growing shortages of electric power and raw materials will hold back the expansion of industrial output in 2004.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $6.449 trillion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.1% (official data) (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 14.8%
industry and construction: 52.9%
services: 32.3% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43.4% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
10% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
40 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.2% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
778.1 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 50%, industry 22%, services 28% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.1% urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (2004 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $265.8 billion
expenditures: $300.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.4% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.42 trillion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.312 trillion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
10.3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.8 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.3 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.57 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
151,200 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.207 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.75 billion bbl (2004)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.29 trillion cu m (2004)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$31.17 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$436.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods, mineral fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 21.1%, Hong Kong 17.4%, Japan 13.6%, South Korea 4.6%, Germany 4% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$397.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 18%, Taiwan 11.9%, South Korea 10.4%, US 8.2%, Germany 5.9% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$412.7 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$197.8 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
yuan (CNY)
note:: also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
CNY
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
yuan per US dollar - 8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002), 8.2771 (2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    China
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
263 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
269 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in place
international: country code - 86; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and Germany (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3,240 (of which 209 are operated by China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.cn
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160,421 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
79.5 million (2003)
   Transportation    China
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 70,058 km
standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (18,668 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines
dual gauge: 22,640 km (not included in total) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,402,698 km
paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
121,557 km (2002)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 13,845 km; oil 15,143 km; refined products 3,280 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,850 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,724,653 GRT/27,749,784 DWT
by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 355, cargo 822, chemical tanker 28, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 165, liquefied gas 28, multi-functional large load carrier 8, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 46, petroleum tanker 272, rail car carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 27, roll on/roll off 25, short-sea/passenger 39, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4
foreign-owned: Cambodia 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 12, Japan 1, South Korea 2, Liberia 1, Malaysia 1, Panama 1, Taiwan 2, Tanzania 1
registered in other countries: 790 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
507 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 332
over 3,047 m: 49
2,438 to 3,047 m: 97
1,524 to 2,437 m: 129
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 35 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 175
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 66 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
15 (2003 est.)
   Military    China
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force, and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA), militia
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 379,524,688 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 208,143,352 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 12,494,201 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$60 billion (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5-5.0% (FY03 est.)
   Transnational Issues    China
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
involved in complex dispute with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei over the Spratly Islands; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; most of the rugged, militarized boundary with India is in dispute, but the two sides are committed to begin resolution with discussions on the least disputed Middle Sector; Kashmir remains the world's largest and highly militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir) and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas), but recent discussion and confidence-building measures among parties are beginning to defuse tensions, India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to China in a 1964 boundary agreement; in 2003 China together with Taiwan asserted their claims to the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai) with increased media coverage and protest actions; China and Kazakhstan have resolved their border dispute and are working to demarcate their large open borders to control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; certain islands in Yalu and Tumen rivers are in an uncontested dispute with North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is indefinite - China has been attempting to stem mass illegal migration of North Koreans escaping famine and oppression into northern China; China continues to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the disputed alluvial islands with Russia at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun river as part of the 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation; boundary delimitation agreements signed in 2002 with Tajikistan cedes 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to China in return for China's relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km, but demarcation has not commenced; demarcation of land boundary with Vietnam continues but maritime boundary and joint fishing zone agreement remains unratified; China occupies Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; groups in Burma and Thailand express concern over China's construction of 13 hydroelectric dams on the Salween River in Yunnan Province
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees: 299,287 (Vietnam) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country for chemical precursors and methamphetamine

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


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