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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2004.


This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


Map of Austria

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Austria
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some Austrian's have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
   Geography    Austria
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 20 N, 13 20 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 83,870 sq km
land: 82,444 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 16.91%
permanent crops: 0.86%
other: 82.23% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
457 sq km (2000 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
   People    Austria
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,174,762 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.9% (male 665,680; female 633,560)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 2,799,411; female 2,764,426)
65 years and over: 16% (male 518,748; female 792,937) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40 years
male: 38.8 years
female: 41.2 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.14% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.9 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.56 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 78.87 years
male: 76 years
female: 81.89 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
German 88.5%, indigenous minorities 1.5% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), recent immigrant groups 10% (includes Turks, Bosnians, Serbians, Croatians) (2001)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 0.1%, none 17.4%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA
female: NA
   Government    Austria
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Vienna
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1156 (from Bavaria)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)
head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held NA April 2010); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%
note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a five- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.5%, FPOe 10.0%, Greens 9.5%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 18, Greens 17
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert HAUPT]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339, 31375, 31335
FAX: [43] (1) 5125835
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
   Economy    Austria
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slow growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to 0.7% growth in 2001, 1.4% in 2002, and again less than 1% in 2003. However, recent data signal that the recovery has started. The government estimates economic growth in 2004 of 1.7-2.1% and of 2.5% in 2005. The government is planning a EURO 500 billion income tax cut in 2004, though some economists doubt it will have stimulative effects in 2004, because it will be offset by higher health insurance contributions and higher taxes on energy. For 2005, Austria plans a tax cut of EURO 2.5 billion and harmonization of the various pension schemes. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, particularly the new EU members, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden. A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in the labor market by its aging population.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $245.3 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.7% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $30,000 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 25.7%
services: 70.9% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
3.9% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
31 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.425 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture and forestry 4%, industry and crafts 29%, services 67% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.4% (2004 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $67 billion
expenditures: $70 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
67.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
58.75 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
54.85 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,670 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
262,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35,470 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
262,000 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
85.69 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.731 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.81 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
403 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.9 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-1.353 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$83.45 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 31.9%, Italy 9.6%, Switzerland 5.2%, US 4.9%, France 4.8%, UK 4.7% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$81.59 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 43.2%, Italy 6.7%, Hungary 5.4%, Switzerland 5%, Netherlands 4.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.73 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$15.5 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $520 million (2002)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; as of 1 January 2002, the euro became the only legal tender in EMU member countries, including Austria
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
EUR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Austria
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.881 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,094,500 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available
international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.at
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
387,006 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.73 million (2003)
   Transportation    Austria
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6,021 km (3,552 km electrified)
standard gauge: 5,565 km 1.435-m gauge (3,430 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 422 km 0.760-m gauge (94 km electrified) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 200,000 km
paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
358 km (2003)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 2,722 km; oil 687 km; refined products 149 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 29,624 GRT/37,425 DWT
by type: cargo 4, container 2
foreign-owned: Netherlands 1
registered in other countries: 34 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
55 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 14 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 27 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)
   Military    Austria
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,066,467 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,699,384 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 48,981 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.8% (FY01/02)
   Transnational Issues    Austria
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
minor disputes with the Czech Republic over the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 30 November, 2004


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